I am trying to see if there is a relationship between number of bat calls and the time of pup rearing season. The pup variable has three categories: "Pre", "Middle", and "Post". When I ask for the summary, it only included the p-values for Pre and Post pup production. I created a sample data set below. With the sample data set, I just get an error…. with my actual data set I get the output I described above.

SAMPLE DATA SET:

```
Calls<- c("55","60","180","160","110","50")
Pup<-c("Pre","Middle","Post","Post","Middle","Pre")
q<-data.frame(Calls, Pup)
q
q1<-lm(Calls~Pup, data=q)
summary(q1)
```

OUTPUT AND ERROR MESSAGE FROM SAMPLE:

```
> Calls Pup
1 55 Pre
2 60 Middle
3 180 Post
4 160 Post
5 110 Middle
6 50 Pre
Error in as.character.factor(x) : malformed factor
In addition: Warning message:
In Ops.factor(r, 2) : ‘^’ not meaningful for factors
```

ACTUAL INPUT FOR MY ANALYSIS:

```
> pupint <- lm(Calls ~ Pup, data = park2)
summary(pupint)
```

THIS IS THE OUTPUT I GET FROM MY ACTUAL DATA SET:

```
Residuals:
Min 1Q Median 3Q Max
-66.40 -37.63 -26.02 -5.39 299.93
Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept) 66.54 35.82 1.858 0.0734 .
PupPost -51.98 48.50 -1.072 0.2927
PupPre -26.47 39.86 -0.664 0.5118
---
Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
Residual standard error: 80.1 on 29 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared: 0.03822, Adjusted R-squared: -0.02811
F-statistic: 0.5762 on 2 and 29 DF, p-value: 0.5683
```

Overall, just wondering why the above output isn’t showing "Middle". Sorry my sample data set didn’t work out the same but maybe that error message will help better understand the problem.

### >Solution :

For R to correctly understand a dummy variable, you have to indicate `Pup`

is a cualitative (dummy) variable by using `factor`

```
> Pup <- factor(Pup)
> q<-data.frame(Calls, Pup)
> q1<-lm(Calls~Pup, data=q)
> summary(q1)
Call:
lm(formula = Calls ~ Pup, data = q)
Residuals:
1 2 3 4 5 6
2.5 -25.0 10.0 -10.0 25.0 -2.5
Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept) 85.00 15.61 5.444 0.0122 *
PupPost 85.00 22.08 3.850 0.0309 *
PupPre -32.50 22.08 -1.472 0.2374
---
Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
Residual standard error: 22.08 on 3 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared: 0.9097, Adjusted R-squared: 0.8494
F-statistic: 15.1 on 2 and 3 DF, p-value: 0.02716
```

If you want R to show all categories inside the dummy variable, then you must remove the intercept from the regression, otherwise, you will be in variable dummy trap.

```
summary(lm(Calls~Pup-1, data=q))
Call:
lm(formula = Calls ~ Pup - 1, data = q)
Residuals:
1 2 3 4 5 6
2.5 -25.0 10.0 -10.0 25.0 -2.5
Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
PupMiddle 85.00 15.61 5.444 0.01217 *
PupPost 170.00 15.61 10.889 0.00166 **
PupPre 52.50 15.61 3.363 0.04365 *
---
Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
Residual standard error: 22.08 on 3 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared: 0.9815, Adjusted R-squared: 0.9631
F-statistic: 53.17 on 3 and 3 DF, p-value: 0.004234
```