::tolower using std::transform

Why std::transform doesn’t work this way:

std::string tmp = "WELCOME";
std::string out = "";
std::transform(tmp.begin(), tmp.end(), out.begin(), ::tolower);

out is empty!

But this works:

std::transform(tmp.begin(), tmp.end(), tmp.begin(), ::tolower);

I don’t want the transformation to happen in-place.

>Solution :

You are writing in out-of-bounds memory, since the range of out is smaller than that of tmp. You can store the result in out by applying std::back_inserter.

As user17732522 pointed out, since it’s not legal to take the adress of a standard libary function, it’s better to pass over a lamda object that calls std::tolower on the character when needed.

std::transform(tmp.begin(), tmp.end(), std::back_inserter(out), [](auto c) {
    return std::tolower(c);

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